What are nutrients?

Nutrients are the various substances that provide us with nourishment and keep our bodies functioning properly. They range from vitamins and minerals to carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Nutrients benefit the body in many ways. They support the metabolism, prevent and fight disease and repair and build tissues. They can also be converted into energy. There are two kinds of nutrients: nonessential nutrients, which can be manufactured by the body; and essential nutrients, which must be obtained from a source outside the body.

Amino Acids


Alanine is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it can be created by the human body and doesn’t need to be obtained through the diet. It is used to improve athletic performance and exercise capacity, building lean muscle mass, and improving physical functions in the elderly.

Alanine can be found in a wide variety of foods including beans, nuts, soy, whole grains, and is particularly concentrated in meats.


Arginine is used to improve heart and blood vessel conditions including chest pains, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, and coronary artery disease. It can also be used for helping with recurrent leg pain due to blocked arteries, male infertility and ED, and decreased mental capacity in the elderly.

Arginine is considered an essential amino acid, because the body cannot produce it.  It is found in a variety of food sources including animal products, dairy products, and various plant sources.

Aspartic acid

Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acid that helps every cell in the body work correctly. It plays a key role in the production and release of hormones and keeping the nervous system functioning normally.

Plant sources of aspartic acid include legumes, peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and flaxseeds. Animal sources include beef, eggs, salmon, and shrimp.


Cystine is an amino acid that is synthesized in the liver and involved in multiple metabolic pathways. It is also a source of metabolic sulfur in the body.  Human hair and skin contain about 10-14% Cystine by mass. Cystine was discovered in 1810, but not recognized as a protein component until 1899 when it was extracted from an animal horn. It has been linked to aiding those with Cystic Fibrosis as well.

Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid is a nonessential amino acid with carboxylate anions and salts known as glutamates. Glutamate functions as a neurotransmitter that places a large role in neural activation.

Virtually every food contains some amount of glutamic acid or glutamate. Larger amounts are found in protein-rich foods such as meat, eggs, milk, cheese, fish, and poultry.


Glycine is a nonessential amino acid that can be made from other chemicals in the body. Most typical diets include 2 grams of glycine daily. Primary sources include protein-rich foods including meat, fish, dairy, and legumes.

Glycine is commonly used for treating strokes, schizophrenia, benign prostatic hyperplasia, as well as some rare inherited metabolic disorders. It is also used to protect the liver from the harmful effects of alcohol,to protect the kidneys from the harmful side effects of certain drugs, and cancer prevention and memory enhancement.


Histidine is an essential amino acid because the body cannot produce it.  Histidine is used by the body to develop and maintain healthy tissues. It coats the cells of the nervous system to ensure the transmission of messages from the brain to the rest of the body.  Adults normally produce enough histidine from other amino acids in the liver to fit their needs, but children must obtain it from the foods that they eat. It is especially needed during infancy to ensure proper growth and development. Histidine is normally found in foods such as dairy products, eggs, meat, and fish.


Isoleucine is an essential amino acid, because the body cannot produce it.  Isoleucine helps with glucose uptake and production during exercise.  Isoleucine is known for its ability to induce muscle protein synthesis. It is one of the three amino acids included in BCAA, or the Branched Chain Amino Acids. This makes it widely used in the world of sports and body building for its ability to aid with muscle growth and recovery.


Leucine is an essential branched chain amino acid because the body cannot produce it.  Leucine has an ability to stimulate protein synthesis in the body.  When dieting or exercising, Leucine helps to turn on the body’s switch for building muscle. Because it is considered an “essential” amino acid, this means that our bodies cannot produce it and must get it from dietary sources.


Lysine is an essential amino acid because the body cannot produce it.  Lysine is an amino acid found in the protein of foods such as cheese, yogurt, milk, meats, and many others.  Lysine is vital in the process of the body creating Carnitine, which is the nutrient that converts fatty acids into energy and helps to lower cholesterol.


Methionine is an essential amino acid.  Methionine is an amino acid that plays an important role in many cellular functions in the body.  Methionine is used to prevent damage to the liver from pain killers by preventing the breakdown products of acetaminophen. It also increases the acidity of urine, treats liver disorders, and improves kidney function.


Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid because the body cannot produce it.  Dietary sources of L-phenylalanine include meat, fish, eggs, cheese, and milk. Phenylalanine is used for depression, ADHD, and chronically painful ailments. It has also been known to help those with vitiligo.  Phenylalanine is an amino acid that comes in three forms: D-phenylalanine, L-phenylalanine, and the mix made in the laboratory called DL-phenylalanine.  Dietary sources of L-phenylalanine include meat, fish, eggs, cheese, and milk. Phenylalanine is used for depression, ADHD, and chronically painful ailments. It has also been known to help those with vitiligo.


Proline is typically known as L-proline and is a nonessential amino acid. It can be synthesized through the breakdown of glutamate.

Consuming the right foods creates the adequate amount of protein and amino acids in your body to produce proline naturally. It is an important factor in the functions of tissue repair, collagen formation, arteriosclerosis prevention, and the maintenance of blood pressure.


Serine is a nonessential amino acid that is derived from glycine. It is very important to keep the brain and central nervous system functioning properly.  Serine is produced in the body when sufficient amounts of vitamin B3, vitamin B6, and Vitamin B9 (folic acid) is present. Foods high in protein, such as meat, soy, dairy products, wheat gluten, and peanuts, are good natural sources of serine.


Threonine is an essential amino acid.  Threonine is an amino acid that the body uses to build proteins. Foods high in threonine include poultry, fish, cottage cheese, meat, lentils, black turtle beans, and sesame seeds.  Threonine is used to treat various nervous system disorders including spinal spasticity, multiple sclerosis, familial spastic paraparesis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  (ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease).


Tryptophan is considered an essential amino acid because the body cannot produce it, so it must be acquired from food. Tryptophan is naturally found in animal and plant proteins.  Tryptophan can be used for depression, anxiety, insomnia, sleep apnea, as well as many other ailments. It has also been known to help improve athletic performance.


Tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid as it can be synthesized from phenylalanine. It is used in protein supplements for those with an inherited disorder called PKU, or phenylketonuria, where phenylalanine cannot be processed properly. Supplemental tyrosine is given to meet the needs of their bodies.

Tyrosine is commonly used for helping with stress, premenstrual syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and many other chronic ailments. It has been known to help those with depression, ADD, ADHD, narcolepsy, and to improve alertness.


Valine is an essential amino acid, as it must be acquired via diet. It is an important factor in supplying energy to muscles, aiding in muscle tissue recovery and repair, as well as increasing endurance.

Valine is very important for infants and children as it is a key factory in optimal growth. It also helps to maintain a healthy nervous system and maintaining cognitive function. Valine is obtained through kidney beans, vegetables, poultry, and milk products.

Fats (Lipids)


Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that is found in every cell of the body. While some is needed to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help with digestion, your body creates all of the cholesterol that it needs to function. It is still found in some of the foods that you eat.

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

Monounsaturated fatty acid is a form of potentially helpful dietary fat that is mostly unsaturated. Research shows that these types of fats may benefit insulin levels and help with blood sugar control, making it good for those with type 2 diabetes.  Monounsaturated fatty acids can be found in a variety of foods and oils, including red meat, milk products, nuts, and high-fat fruits such as olives and avocados. Olive and sunflower oils have the highest amount of monounsaturated fats.

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been proven to improve blood cholesterol levels, which reduces the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes.  Polyunsaturated fat is found mostly in plant-based foods and oils. They also provide the essential fats that your body needs but cannot produce, such as omega-3 and omega-6.

Fatty acids, total saturated

Saturated fatty acid is a potentially harmful dietary fat which comes from mainly animal sources, such as red meat, coconut, poultry, and full-fat dairy products.  Saturated fat is known to increase total blood cholesterol levels and LDL, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Fatty acids, total trans

Trans fatty acid is considered the worst type of fat there is, as it both raises your LDL cholesterol and lowers your HDL cholesterol levels. This greatly increases the risk of heart disease.  Small amounts trans fats are found naturally in some meat and dairy products, but it is mostly created in industrial processes which adds hydrogenated vegetable oils that solidifies at room temperature. This allows foods to have a longer shelf life, but is also incredibly unhealthy.

Total lipid (fat)

Lipids are one of the major components of foods and provide a large source of energy and essential lipid nutrients. Over-consumption of lipids can be absolutely detrimental to the body and overall health.


Calcium, Ca

Calcium makes up anywhere from 1-2% of an adult’s total body weight. 99% of the calcium in the body is found in the teeth and bones. Many people believe that you need to eat dairy products to get your RDA of calcium, but this is not true. Certain fruits and vegetables will provide you with calcium as well.

Calcium-rich foods can provide you with many health benefits. They can help with the general health of your body’s muscles. Calcium also maintains your acid and alkaline balance. Calcium lowers the risk of poor bone integrity and helps with bone support.

Osteoporosis and joint pain can result from a calcium deficiency. Calcium can also help regulate blood pressure. The right amount of calcium can also help maintain a healthy, regular heartbeat.

Copper, Cu

Copper is crucial to the body for a healthy existence. The body does not produce copper, so you have to get your RDA from outside sources. Copper plays a key role in proper growth, thyroid gland function and cholesterol levels.

Copper makes sure the heart rhythm stays normal and helps the body utilize iron. Copper also helps red blood cells form and ensures thyroid gland function.

Copper can help lower bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol. A copper deficiency can result in brittle bones, osteoporosis, anemia and dilated veins.

Fluoride, F

Fluoride is a mineral naturally found in many foods and in water. It is known to play an essential role in the protection and strength of teeth.  Fluoride is found in most community water systems. It is naturally found in the form of sodium chloride in the oceans, making seafood a source of dietary fluoride. Tea and gelatin are also know to contain it.



Iodine is a necessary element for the thyroid gland.  It’s utilized by the thyroid to create the necessary hormones that insure proper growth of the human body.   Some food sources of iodine are fish, shellfish, seaweed, and eggs.  Iodine deficiency can present as fatigue, weight gain, depression and mental fog.

Iron, Fe

Iron is a very important mineral that you should never dismiss from your daily meals. The two types of iron are known as heme iron and non-heme iron. You obtain heme iron by eating animals and you obtain non-heme iron by eating plant and dairy products.

Foods high in iron can help your body produce more energy. Iron is also a key mineral for supporting the immune system. Iron can also help distribute oxygen throughout the body.

Lack of iron in the body can lead to weakness, fatigue and even hair loss. An iron deficiency can also result in headaches, depression and dizziness. Incorporating enough iron into your daily diet can prevent and/or treat these problems.

Magnesium, Mg

Magnesium is a mineral that is very important for the metabolism. Studies show that adults are only getting about 66% of their RDA of magnesium. This lack of magnesium should be changed, because magnesium is responsible for helping with 300 different chemical reactions in the body.

Magnesium helps keep the bone metabolism at a healthy level. Magnesium also enables energy production and helps maintain the balance of the nervous system. In addition, magnesium is a co-factor for better control of blood sugar levels.

Magnesium can help lower high blood pressure. The proper supplementation of magnesium can also help with Type II diabetes. If you are at risk of cardiovascular disease, it is very important to make sure you consume enough magnesium daily. The right amount of magnesium can also help with leg cramps, fatigue and osteoporosis.

Manganese, Mn

Manganese promotes healthy bone structure and aids bone metabolism, in addition to benefiting the body in many other ways. At any one time, the body contains about 20 mg of manganese. Manganese is found in the kidneys, bones, pancreas and liver. It is a very strong antioxidant that seeks and destroys free radicals in the body.

Acting as a co-enzyme, manganese assists in the body’s metabolic activity. Manganese metabolizes carbohydrates and fats and absorbs calcium. Manganese also helps the formation of connective tissues in the body, regulates blood sugar levels and aids thyroid gland function.

Studies show the proper amount of manganese can help treat epileptic seizures. Manganese also relieves the symptoms of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. The antioxidant properties of manganese help treat sprains and inflammations.

Phosphorus, P

Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the body. About 85% of the total phosphorus in the body is found in the bones. Due to the prevalence of processed foods, phosphorus deficiencies are very rare. It is important to remember that too much phosphorus can also lead to health problems.

Phosphorus contributes to the formation of strong bones and teeth. It is also responsible for helping get oxygen to tissues in the body. This mineral is important for helping transform protein, carbohydrates and fats into energy. Phosphorus also plays a key role in the development of the organs and connective tissues throughout the body. The body needs phosphorus to use B vitamins and to produce hormones.

Like calcium deficiencies, phosphorus deficiencies can lead to osteoporosis. A phosphorus deficiency can also lead to fatigue, rickets or improper bone formation. If too much phosphorus is consumed, it can have a reverse effect on your body. Too much phosphorus can lead to calcification of the organs and other issues.

Potassium, K

A lack of potassium can lead to muscle cramps. Bananas, lima beans, soy beans and yams all have an abundance of potassium. Humans need potassium to survive. If potassium levels in the body get too high or too low, the heart and nervous system will shut down completely.

Potassium is the third most abundant mineral in the body and has many important functions. A high potassium diet can dramatically benefit kidney function. Potassium can also help the blood vessels open more efficiently. Consuming the RDA of potassium can decrease the risk of kidney stones.

Potassium plays a key role in lowering blood pressure to a healthy level. A potassium deficiency can cause heart palpitations and even diabetes. When the body has high levels of potassium, it allows more oxygen to reach the brain, thus reducing the risk of stroke.

Selenium, Se

Selenium is an important dietary mineral although the body only requires a small amount in the daily diet. It provides antioxidant protection, supports normal thyroid function, and promotes good overall health.  Selenium is largely found in fish and shellfish, while other animal meats, grains, and seeds are also decent sources.

Sodium, Na

Sodium is both a mineral and an electrolyte, and it is necessary for many functions in the body. Sodium fuels muscle and nerve function and maintains proper levels of fluid in the body. It is important to monitor the level of sodium intake because sodium levels decrease through sweat. Be aware of the amount of sodium in the food you eat so you can curb the risk of disease. The proper amount of sodium in the diet can prevent both heart and vascular disease, but too much sodium can be dangerous.

Athletes are at high risk for a reduction in sodium levels due to their increased physical activity. A common misconception is that the best way to remain hydrated is by drinking water or an electrolyte-filled beverage such as Gatorade. But researchers recommend consuming small amounts of sodium to replace what has been lost through sweat. There are many factors that contribute to your sweat rate and loss of sodium, such as weather, genetics, acclimatization and fitness. By corresponding the amount you sweat with the amount of weight you lose, you can estimate the proper intake of sodium you need.

A healthy level of sodium is necessary for nerve function. Sodium allows the nervous system to communicate effectively throughout the body. A lack of sodium disrupts the transmission in the nervous system, preventing the production of electrical signals and causing the nervous system to fail.

Zinc, Zn

Zinc is one of many macro minerals the body needs to perform various functions. A study performed on young men in Egypt and Iran found that a lack of zinc in the subjects’ diets impaired their overall growth.

A small amount of zinc on a daily basis can have a large impact on your body. Zinc can enhance your senses of smell and taste. Consuming the RDA of zinc supports the immune system. Adding zinc to your daily diet can stabilize your metabolic rate. Zinc is also essential to proper growth for children.

Low zinc levels can lead to increased risk of colds and infections, lack of appetite and even depression.  An insufficient amount of zinc can also be linked to improper growth in children.


Carbohydrate, by difference

Carbohydrate by difference is the sum of the nutritionally available carbohydrates, nutritionally unavailable carbohydrates, and non-carbohydrates such as organic acids and lignin.


Every cell in the human body contains proteins, or chains of amino acids. These chains are broken down into individual amino acids during the digestion process and are necessary for good health. Protein is necessary to help your body repair existing cells and to make new ones. It is required for any kind of bodily growth and development.



Galactose is a simple sugar that is less sweet than fructose or glucose and is found in milk. It is considered a nutritive sweetener, as it provides food energy.  Galactose can be found in milk and other dairy products, sugar beets, and other gums or mucilages.

Glucose (dextrose)

Glucose is a carbohydrate and natural simple sugar that is found in plant and animal products. It is the major source of energy for most of the cells in the body, making it the most important simple sugar to the human metabolism.  Glucose is a natural product of photosynthesis in plants and is created during the breakdown of glycogen in animals and fungi. It can be commercially produced as well. Individuals with diabetes suffer from metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Adversely, those with hypoglycemia suffer from low blood sugar levels.


Lactose is a sugar that is derived from galactose and glucose. It is most commonly found in milk from mammals, as it makes up 2-8% of its content by weight depending on the species.


Maltose, or malt sugar, is the least common natural sugar and is formed when two units of glucose bond together.

Natural Sugars

Sugar is the simplest carbohydrate and is easily broken down during digestion to be converted into energy. Sugar is naturally or artificially derived in food. Consuming excess amounts of sugar can lead to health issues.

Processed Sugars

Sugar is the simplest carbohydrate and is easily broken down during digestion to be converted into energy. Sugar is naturally or artificially derived in food. Consuming excess amounts of sugar can lead to health issues.


Starch is a while, granular, organic chemical that is naturally produced by all green-colored plants during photosynthesis and serves the plants as a reserve food supply.


Vitamin A

Vitamin A is actually a group of nutrients. Retinoids and carotenoids are the two basic forms of vitamin A. Retinoids are generally found in animal foods, while carotenoids are generally found in plant foods. Vitamin A is commonly known for supporting vision.

Vitamin A also supports the immune system and enhances the male and female reproductive systems. Vitamin A also benefits bone metabolism.

Retinoid forms of vitamin A help with ulcers, psoriasis, poor vision, diabetes and more. Carotenoid forms of vitamin A help with skin cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, asthma and more.

Vitamin B

The many variants of vitamin B help in the processes your body goes through to make energy from food. They also assist in the formation of red blood cells. A lack of vitamin B can lead to anemia and other diseases. B vitamins can be found in leafy vegetables, beans, peas, fish, poultry, meat, eggs, dairy products, and other proteins.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Vitamin B1 s also known as Thiamine, and it plays a key role in keeping the body healthy. It is one of eight water-soluble vitamins in the B complex family. Thiamine is necessary for the breakdown of proteins and fats. Thiamine also helps the cardiovascular and nervous systems function.

Thiamine helps ensure the proper function of the cardiac system. This powerful antioxidant can also reduce the effects of aging. Thiamine helps ensure proper cardiac function by producing acetylcholine. Thiamine helps develop coverings around the nerves called myelin sheaths. A thiamine deficiency can cause the myelin sheaths to deteriorate, which can result in nerve damage or nerve death.

Thiamine can help manage nerve disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Enough thiamine can also slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. When used with other nutrients, thiamine can prevent the occurrence of cataracts. A thiamine deficiency can lead to a brain disorder called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 is also known as riboflavin. Riboflavin is one of eight water-soluble vitamins in the B complex family. Riboflavin can be found in eggs, meat, nuts, milk and green vegetables. It is a very important vitamin with many health benefits. Riboflavin promotes healthy skin and helps battle Alzheimer’s disease.

Riboflavin helps with the proper development of the digestive tract, skin and blood cells. Riboflavin can also boost energy levels and improve functions in the immune system. It is good for healthy skin and hair and can slow the aging process.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Niacin (Vitamin B3) has been studied as a treatment for many other health problems. There’s some promising evidence that it might help lower the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, cataracts, osteoarthritis, and type 1 diabetes.

As a cholesterol treatment, niacin has strong evidence. Several studies have shown that it can boost levels of good HDL cholesterol and lower triglycerides as well or better than some prescription drugs. Niacin also modestly lowers bad LDL cholesterol.

Niacin blocks the release of fatty acids from fat cells. Fewer fatty acids are passed through to the liver, resulting in a lower cholesterol level.

Niacin has other benefits. There’s good evidence that it helps reduce atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. For people who have already had a heart attack, niacin seems to lower the risk of a second one. Niacin is an FDA-approved treatment for pellagra, a rare condition that develops from niacin deficiency.

Niacin also seems to be very effective in increasing joint mobility. Correlated with the facts that niacin enhances muscle strength and reduces muscle and joint fatigue, this means that vitamin B3 can be successfully used in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Niacin is appreciated for its anti-inflammatory effect, which makes it a proper treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Worn down cartilage is rebuild when sufficient vitamin B3 is taken.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, get its name from the Greek word Pantos, which means “everywhere.” This is because pantothenic acid is in almost every food known to man. Pantothenic acid is part of the B-complex family of vitamins. In the 1930s and 1940s, it was first researched as a growth factor for all kinds of organisms.

This essential vitamin has many functions in the body.  Pantothenic acid is responsible for helping the body turn fats and carbohydrates into usable energy. Pantothenic acid also supports the adrenal glands, which can decrease stress. Pantothenic acid aids the production of healthy fats within the body’s cells.

A deficiency in pantothenic acid can lead to fatigue, lack of energy and, in severe cases, numbness and burning pain in the feet.

Vitamin B6

Many researchers speculate most people don’t get enough vitamin B6 daily. If this is true, it’s time for a change, because vitamin B6 combats more than 100 health conditions. It is one of the most studied vitamins in the B-complex family. Vitamin B6’s original name was “antidermatitis factor,” because it helped treat skin inflammations.

Vitamin B6 is very beneficial for the nervous system. Vitamin B6 also helps break down sugars and starches in the body. Vitamin B6 plays a key role in the formation of new cells in the body. Vitamin B6 is also great for the skin and makes you look younger.

Eczema and many other skin disorders can result from a lack of vitamin B6. A vitamin B6 deficiency can also lead to microcytic anemia, seizures and convulsions.

Vitamin B9 (Folate)

Folate (also known as vitamin B9, folic acid and folacin) has one of the most complex chemical structures of any vitamin. It benefits the body in many ways.

Folate boosts cell production in the body, especially red cell production. As a result, it promotes good nerve function. Folate also helps prevent bone fractures and strengthens the mind against dementia.

Folate can help with both minor and severe diseases and medical conditions. If you are suffering from insomnia, depression, periodontal disease or gingivitis, you may want to increase your daily folate intake. Folate can also treat anemia and reduce the effects of Alzheimer’s disease.

Vitamin B12

The most controversial member of the B-complex vitamin family is vitamin B12. No plant nor animal has shown the ability to produce B12. It is found in molds, algae, yeast and bacterias. This vitamin has been used as a weight loss aid for several years.

Vitamin B12 helps the body’s cells metabolize fat, proteins and carbohydrates. Vitamin B12 also supports red blood cell production and helps develop nerve cells.

A high vitamin B12 diet helps you cope with damaged nerves and conditions such as peripheral neuropathy. Vitamin B12 can also combat depression and lessen the severity of heart palpitations. Along with promoting weight loss, vitamin B12 can help lower the risk of heart disease.


Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin typically associated with the immune system. It is important to the body in many ways. Stored in the liver and excreted through urine, vitamin C’s major function is as a co factor in the formation and repair of collagen. Vitamin C is abundant in many foods such as oranges, grapefruits, peppers and cantaloupes. There are also vitamin C supplements available that can be taken orally.

Although vitamin C cannot prevent the common cold, it can relieve the symptoms. Typically, if your diet is high in vitamin C, you will get over your cold faster. On a grander scale, vitamin C has antioxidant properties that help prevent cancer, cataracts and heart disease and can treat high blood pressure, asthma and diabetes.

It is not common to have a vitamin C deficiency, but the result can lead to scurvy.

Vitamin D (D2+D3)

Recent research shows vitamin D is not only a fat-soluble vitamin, it is also a hormone. Ergosterol is vitamin D for plants, while cholesterol is the building block of vitamin D for humans. When ultraviolet light from the sun hits the skin, it becomes vitamin D.

Vitamin D has many benefits. Vitamin D can regulate blood pressure and help the body metabolize calcium more efficiently. Vitamin D also supports the immune system and promotes proper growth in children. It also benefits the cognitive function of the elderly.

Vitamin D can help prevent Type II diabetes and many types of cancer, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer and bladder cancer. Vitamin D can also lower the risk of stroke and heart attack. Vitamin D can treat osteoporosis and chronic fatigue.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a family of fat-soluble vitamins. These vitamins were discovered almost 100 years ago, to prevent fetal resorption in pregnant women. Human diets contain up to eight different vitamin E molecules.

Research has found that consuming foods that are rich in vitamin E can reduce the risk of bladder cancer by as much as 50%. Vitamin E also protects the skin from ultraviolet light. Vitamin E prevents free radicals from damaging the body’s cells and supports communication between cells.

The form of vitamin E known as gamma-tocopherol reduces the production of prostate cancer cells without affecting the healthy cells. Vitamin E also has anti-inflammatory benefits and can treat malabsorption in the digestive system. Vitamin E can also treat liver and gallbladder problems along with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Vitamin K

There are two categories of vitamin K: phylloquinone and menaquinone. Phylloquinone is made by plants, while menaquinone is made by bacteria. Phylloquinone accounts for about 90% of the vitamin K intake in humans.

Vitamin K is essential to the body for many reasons. Vitamin K helps prevent postmenopausal bone loss and certain cancers. Vitamin K also helps the blood clot and prevents the body from bruising easily.

A vitamin K deficiency can result in weak bones, which could lead to possible fractures. A vitamin K deficiency can also result in excessive bleeding or calcification of heart valves and blood vessels.

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